The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative potential of Punica granatum in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced ulcerative colitis. DSS (2%) was administered orally in drinking water for 7 days to induce ulcerative colitis. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), a specific marker of inflammation; histamine, a marker of mast cell degranulation; superoxide anion generation and, lipid peroxides were analysed. Treatment with Punica granatum extract and its ellagic acid rich fraction (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg p.o.) significantly attenuated DSS-induced colonic inflammation along with attenuation of histamine, MPO and oxidative stress. The antiulcerative effect of Punica granatum extract and its ellagic acid rich fraction were comparable to sulphasalazine (100 mg/kg, p.o.) and sodium cromoglycate (40 mg/kg i.p). It is concluded that Punica granatum has a potential for ameliorating DSS-induced colitis and its ellagic acid rich fraction may be responsible for this effect. Further, the antiulcerative effects may be attributed to mast cell stabilizing, antiinflammatory and antioxidant actions.