Effect of Momordica charantia fruit extract on vascular complication in type 1 diabetic rats

Diabetes mellitus is one of the risk factors in the development of vascular complications. Decreased nitric oxide (NO) production and increased lipid peroxidation in diabetes mellitus are the dominant exaggerating factors. Mormodica charantia (MC) was proven to be useful in improving diabetes mellitus and its complications. In the present study, a total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Diabetes was induced by a single dose (50 mg/kg) of streptozotocin (STZ), intramuscularly. Following 4 weeks of STZ induction, the animals were equally divided into five groups (n = 8); Control group (Ctrl), control group treated with MC (Ctrl-MC), diabetic untreated group (DM-Ctrl), diabetic group treated with MC (DM-MC) and diabetic group treated with metformin 150 g/kg (DM-Met). Oral administration of the MC fruit extract (1.5 g/kg) was continued for 28 days. DM-MC group showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in blood pressure, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels compared to the DM-Ctrl group. Aortic tissue NO level was significantly increased and malondialdehyde level was decreased in the DM-MC group. Immunohistochemical staining showed an increase in eNOS expression in the endothelial lining of the DM-MC group. Similarly, morphological deterioration of the aortic tissues was reverted to normal. In summary, treatment with the MC fruit extract exerted the significant vasculoprotective effect in the type 1 diabetic rat model.

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