About the Disease

Madhumeh (Diabetes Mellitus) is a chronic condition associated with abnormally high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. People with Madhumeh (Diabetes Mellitus) either do not produce enough insulin—a hormone that is needed to convert sugar, starches and other food into energy needed for daily life—or cannot use the insulin that their bodies produce. As a result, glucose builds up in the bloodstream. If left untreated, Madhumeh (Diabetes Mellitus) can lead to blindness, kidney disease, nerve disease, heart disease, and stroke. There are two major types of Madhumeh (Diabetes Mellitus) mellitus:

Type 1—Also known as insulin-dependent Madhumeh (Diabetes Mellitus) (IDDM), type 1 Madhumeh (Diabetes Mellitus) is an autoimmune disease . Type 1 Madhumeh (Diabetes Mellitus) usually occurs most often in children and young adults and it accounts for 5% to 10% of all Madhumeh (Diabetes Mellitus) cases.

Type 2—The most common form of Madhumeh (Diabetes Mellitus) (accounting for 90% of all cases), type 2 Madhumeh (Diabetes Mellitus) is a metabolic disorder resulting from the body's inability to make enough, or properly use, insulin. It occurs most frequently in people who are overweight, inactive, and older than 40 years of age.

Causes

Both types of Madhumeh (Diabetes Mellitus) are caused by the absence, insufficient production, or lack of response by cells in the body to the hormone insulin. Insulin is a key regulator of the body's metabolism. After meals, food is digested in the stomach and intestines. Sugar (glucose) molecules are absorbed directly into the bloodstream, and blood glucose levels rise. Under normal circumstances, the rise in blood glucose levels signals specific cells in the pancreas—called beta cells—to secrete insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin, in turn, enables glucose to enter cells in the body to be burned for energy or stored for future use.

People with type 1 Madhumeh (Diabetes Mellitus) produce little or no insulin at all because their immune systems attack and destroy the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. Although it is not clear what specifically causes type 1 Madhumeh (Diabetes Mellitus), it is believed that exposure to a toxin or viral infection may trigger this autoimmune attack in genetically susceptible individuals. In type 1 Madhumeh (Diabetes Mellitus), beta cells are destroyed gradually, but symptoms do not appear until at least 80% of the cells are affected.

Type 2 Madhumeh (Diabetes Mellitus) usually develops in older, overweight individuals who become resistant to the effects of insulin over time. When type 2 Madhumeh (Diabetes Mellitus) is diagnosed, the pancreas is usually producing enough insulin but, for unknown reasons, the body cannot use the insulin effectively (a condition called insulin resistance). In people with type 2 Madhumeh (Diabetes Mellitus), production of insulin by the pancreas also tends to diminish.

As mentioned above, other types of Madhumeh (Diabetes Mellitus) can occur as a result of pregnancy (gestational Madhumeh (Diabetes Mellitus)), genetic disorders, surgery, medications such as steroids, malnutrition, infections, and other illnesses. In addition, physical stress can cause a temporary rise in blood sugar or even uncover "hidden" Madhumeh (Diabetes Mellitus).

Symptoms

Madhumeh (Diabetes Mellitus) symptoms vary depending on how much your blood sugar is elevated. Some people, especially those with pre Madhumeh (Diabetes Mellitus) or type 2 Madhumeh (Diabetes Mellitus), may not experience symptoms initially. In type 1 Madhumeh (Diabetes Mellitus), symptoms tend to come on quickly and be more severe.

Some of the signs and symptoms of type 1 and type 2 Madhumeh (Diabetes Mellitus) are:

  • Increased thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Extreme hunger
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Presence of ketones in the urine (ketones are a byproduct of the breakdown of muscle and fat that happens when there's not enough available insulin)
  • Fatigue
  • Irritability
  • Blurred vision
  • Slow-healing sores
  • Frequent infections, such as gums or skin infections and vaginal infections

Although type 1 Madhumeh (Diabetes Mellitus) can develop at any age, it typically appears during childhood or adolescence. Type 2 Madhumeh (Diabetes Mellitus), the more common type, can develop at any age, though it's more common in people older than 40.