Raktatisaar (Ulcerative Colitis)
About the Disorder
Raktatisaar (or Ulcerative Colitis in Modern English) is a long-term condition that causes inflammation and sores (ulcers) in the lining of the large intestine and rectum. The inflammation usually begins in the rectum and sigmoid colon and spread upward to the entire colon. Ulcerative colitis rarely affects the small intestine. The severity of the symptoms varies, depending on how much of the rectum and colon is inflamed and how severe the inflammation is.
Raktatisaar occurs at the rate of approximately five cases per 100,000 people. The disease pattern is one of the remission and exacerbation. It can occur at any age but its onset is most common among people between ages of 15 – 40. Ulcerative colitis affects male and females equally and appears to run in some families.
The exact cause of Raktatisaar (Ulcerative Colitis) is not known. Factors that have all been suggested are:
• Autoimmune factors
• Food allergies
• Collagen disorders
• Genetic factors
• Infection and Psychogenesis
One or some combination of these factors thought to trigger the inflammatory process. The theory of the involvement of the immune mechanism has been widely accepted because of concept that therapeutic agents like Corticosteroids and Azothiaprine exert their effect via the immuno suppressive mechanism. The psychological factors of feelings like anger and anxiety of the degree of depression experienced by a sufferer are also important in modifying the course of the disease.
Symptoms of Raktatisaar (Ulcerative Colitis)
The main symptom of Raktatisaar (ulcerative colitis) is frequent diarrhoea, which may be mixed with blood or mucus. Patient may also have lower abdominal (tummy) pain or cramps and need to rush to the toilet. Other symptoms include:
• feeling generally unwell
• loss of appetite
• weight loss
• having temperature
• feeling tired
If patient have proctitis, patient may not have diarrhoea, but still frequently feel an urgent need to have a bowel movement.If patient has ulcerative colitis, there is a chance that he or she could develop problems in other parts of your body. These can include mouth ulcers, skin rashes and inflammation (redness or pain) in eyes, skin or joints. Problems outside the large bowel often occur during a flare-up but can also happen while patient is in remission.
How Raktatisaar (Ulcerative Colitis) affects the intestines?
In Ulcerative Colitis, inflammation is triggered by some unknown elements. Hyperemia and swelling occur as part of the vascular response. The swollen, engorged bowel is fragile and is therefore inclined to ulcerate, thus creating a break in the mucosal barrier. Digestive enzymes and intestinal bacteria act upon this exposed tissue, causing further irritation, inflammation, ulceration and bleeding.
What are the symptoms of Raktatisaar (Ulcerative Colitis)?
Symptoms of Raktatisaar (Ulcerative Colitis) are:
- Frequent loose stools with passage of blood and mucous
- Patient may complain of abdominal pain
- Loss of weight
- Loss of body fluids and nutrients
- Some patients also have skin lesions
- Joint pain
- Inflammation of eyes and
- Liver disorders
How to diagnose Raktatisaar (Ulcerative Colitis)?
Raktatisaar (Ulcerative Colitis) diagnosis is done after carefully taking the history and physical examination of the patients, then the patients are subjected to sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy examination. The rectum and colon are seen through a flexible optical / camera tube which is inserted through anus. During this examination a sample of tissue from the lining of the colon is taken to observe under a microscope. This is called a histopathology examination. A barium enema is helpful in determining the nature and the extent of the disease in patients.
The Ayurveda view
Saint Sushruta mentioned in Sushruta Samhita about 3000 years ago that Pitta type people are more prone to Ulcerative Colitis (Raktatisaar).